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Title: 
Integrated Strategies to Minimise Slurry Nitrogen Losses – Application Rates and Method. Experimental site Devon, 2004

Related Party - Individual (Point of Contact): Doctor Tom Misselbrook
Related Party - Organisation (Author): Rothamsted Research - North Wyke
Related Party - Organisation (Funder): Defra
Abstract:
Cattle slurry was applied by trailing shoe and surface broadcasting at five rates, viz: 20, 35, 50, 65 and 80 m3 ha-1, using a purpose built small-plot applicator to grassland, on a coarse sandy loam soil in autumn 2004 at a site close to North Wyke, Devon. There were 3 replicate plots (5 x 12 m) of each application treatment arranged in a randomised block design. Ammonia emissions were measured from each treatment for 7 days after application using wind tunnels. Direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions were measured from the 35 m3 ha-1 slurry rate only for about 12 months after application from both application techniques and an untreated control, using the static chamber technique (five chambers per plot). Nitrous oxide samples were analysed using gas chromatography. Crop (fresh weight and dry matter) yields and N offtakes were measured at harvest. The Devon, 2004 experiment contains data sets of; annual nitrous oxide emission, annual nitrous oxide emission factor, total ammonia loss, overwinter nitrate leaching loss, soil moisture, temperature, rainfall and associated crop, soil and manure measurements.

Subject Keywords: SlurryNitrous oxideAmmoniaNitrate leachingCattle slurryTrailing shoeSurface broadcastBandspreadingApplication methodsGrassland soilsSandy soils
Geographic Keywords: DevonEnglandUnited Kingdom
Phenomenon Time -  Start Date/Time: 2004-11-24 00:00:00 End Date/Time:  2005-11-02 00:00:00

Geographic Extent -
    Longitude (West): -4.03
    Longitude (East): -3.76
    Latitude (South): 50.72
    Latitude (North): 50.89

Data Quality Statement:
Rothamsted Research (North Wyke) Data Quality Statement Rothamsted Research is committed to complying with the standards of the RCUK Policy and Guidelines on Governance of Good Research Conduct, Joint Code of Practice for Research (JCoPR), BBSRC Statement on Safeguarding Good Science Practice, BBSRC data sharing policy and the environmental standard, ISO 14001. Rothamsted Research provides a quality-oriented environment: - Senior management approval of science projects before submission to sponsors. - Scrutiny to ratify the statistical design, management and output for all field, glasshouse and CE experiments. - Institute wide information tools, such as databases of standard operating procedures, risk assessments, COSHH forms, scientific samples, chemical stocks, staff CVs, training and laboratory notebooks. - Laboratory notebook procedures to ensure all operations are recorded, signed and dated, primary data are linked to secondary data, sample location is easily identified and in-house training is recorded. - Electronic data are maintained and backed up on networked servers. Every week a full copy is cycled to a separate physical location. - Environmental targets and objectives are set and environmental performance is monitored in accordance with ISO 14001. - A well-defined training programme for postgraduate students. - Experienced, professional staff provide scientists with support services including experimentation under field, glass and controlled environmental conditions. - High quality academic support services (Computing, Library, Statistics, BioImaging, Analytical Labs, Contracts, Finance and Quality Assurance) - Regular calibration and maintenance of equipment. - Senior management approval of all publications prior to submission and a policy that emphasises submission to peer-reviewed journals. - Facilities are available for Rothamsted to conduct work to support pesticide and semiochemical product approval or authorisation under its ORETO licence number 338, expiry 26 March 2018. Work is conducted to the requirements of this licence if specifically requested by sponsors. Note, Rothamsted Research does not follow GLP and is not accredited as a test facility under the Good Laboratory Practice Regulations, 1999. Project Leaders are responsible for science project work, including that of sub-contractors. Project planning involves risk management of the project. Staff and students on appointment are selected on the basis of how their skills meet the requirements of the project. Training is provided at induction and thereafter identified through annual staff appraisal. Responsibilities of staff involved in the project are formally set out in their written job description and forward job plan. Monitoring and improvement of scientific and environmental standards is achieved through the operation of internal and external procedures: - Monitoring of science output by senior management. - Reviewing progress of projects. - Evaluating reports from internal audits of science projects against the JCoPR, from all Rothamsted activities against the requirements of ISO 14001 and from all external audits. Detailed nitrous oxide emission measurement methodology: Direct N2O emissions were measured with five static flux chambers (40 cm wide x 40 cm long x 25 cm high) per plot, covering a total surface area of 0.8 m2. The chambers were of white (i.e. reflective) PVC and un-vented with a water-filled channel running around the upper rim of the chamber allowing an air-tight seal to form following chamber enclosure with a lid (Smith et al., 2012). Chambers were pushed into the soil up to a depth of 5 cm and remained in place throughout the experiment, except during slurry application and grass cutting when chambers were removed, locations were marked, and chambers were re-instated to the same position as prior to removal. Chambers remained open except for a short time on each sampling day. On that day, eight samples of ambient air were taken to represent time zero (T0) N2O samples. From each chamber, after a 40-minute enclosure period (T40) one headspace sample was taken using a 50-ml syringe, reduced to a 20 ml sample which was drawn into a pre-evacuated 20 ml glass vial fitted with a chloro-butyl rubber septum and held at atmospheric pressure. The N2O flux was calculated using an assumed linear increase in N2O concentration from the ambient N2O concentration (T0) to the N2O concentration inside the chamber after 40-minutes enclosure (T40) (Chadwick et al., 2014). Previous field experiments in the UK have demonstrated a linear increase in N2O concentration within a chamber and this was supported by the results from a desk study which reviewed UK experimental data where the increase in N2O concentration within a field chamber had been measured during enclosure (Chadwick et al., 2014). More than 90% of the 1,970 measurements of chamber headspace accumulation demonstrated a linear increase in N2O concentration (Chadwick et al., 2014). In order to minimise the effect of diurnal variation, gas sampling was carried out where possible at the same time of day. Gas samples were analysed as soon as possible after collection (to minimise potential leakage) using gas chromatographs fitted with an electron-capture detector and an automated sample injection system. Following receipt in the laboratory, two replicates of one standard N2O gas were kept with the samples and were used to verify sample integrity during storage. The gas chromatographs were calibrated on a daily basis using certified N2O standard gas mixtures. Following slurry application, N2O flux measurements were carried out for 5 days immediately following slurry application, daily for a further 5 days during the next week, weekly for the next three weeks and then fortnightly until the end of the 12 month sampling period, or following any above average precipitation events. Prior to the slurry application N2O measurements were taken to provide baseline information. This sampling schedule resulted in an annual total of c.40 sampling days starting from the day of the first slurry application. Measurements were taken over 12 months to follow IPCC good practice guidance and so that the results were directly comparable to the IPCC 2006 methodology default emission factor. Nitrous oxide fluxes from the five replicate chambers per plot were averaged. Cumulative fluxes were calculated using the trapezoidal rule to interpolate fluxes between sampling points. References: Chadwick, D.R., Cardenas, L., Misselbrook, T.H., Smith, K.A., Rees, R.M., Watson, C.J., Mcgeough, K.L., Williams, J.R., Cloy, J.M., Thorman, R.E. and Dhanoa, M.S. (2014). Optimizing chamber methods for measuring nitrous oxide emissions from plot-based agricultural experiments. European Journal of Soil Science 65, 295-307. Smith K.A., Dobbie K.E., Thorman R., Watson C.J., Chadwick D.R., Yamulki S. and Ball B.C. (2012). The effect of N fertilizer forms on nitrous oxide emissions from UK arable land and grassland. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 93, 127-149.
Publication Date: 
2016-11-02


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Rights Statement

This data is published under the licence Open Government Licence (Version 3)

Attribution: S. Yamulki and T.H. Misselbrook

Citation of this data should be as follows:
S. Yamulki and T.H. Misselbrook (2016): Integrated Strategies to Minimise Slurry Nitrogen Losses – Application Rates and Method. Experimental site Devon, 2004. Version:1. [dataset] Freshwater Biological Association [publisher]. doi:10.17865/ghgno88

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