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Title: 
Experimental determination of nitrous oxide emission factors for arable land. Experimental site in Devon, 2008

Related Party - Organisation (Author): Rothamsted UK - North Wyke
Related Party - Organisation (Funder): Defra
Abstract:
At Rothamsted Research - North Wyke in south west England nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions were monitored following spring ammonium nitrate fertiliser applications at 6 different rates; 0 (i.e. untreated control), 70, 140, 210, 280 and 350 kg N ha-1. Up to three separate fertiliser applications were made in order to reach the target application rate. There were 3 replicate plots (4 x 12 m) of each treatment arranged in a randomised block design. The plots were established on a winter wheat crop sown the previous autumn, on coarse sandy loam soil. Direct nitrous oxide emissions were measured from each treatment for 12 months using the static chamber technique (3 chambers per plot) and GC analysis. The Devon, 2008 experiment contains data sets of; annual nitrous oxide emission, annual nitrous oxide emission factor, soil moisture, temperature, rainfall and crop yield (from the 210 kg N ha-1 treatment only) and soil measurements.

Subject Keywords: Nitrous oxideManufactured nitrogen fertilizersAmmonium nitrateApplication ratesArable landWinter wheatSandy soils
Geographic Keywords: DevonSouth West EnglandEnglandUnited Kingdom
Phenomenon Time -  Start Date/Time: 2008-03-04 00:00:00 End Date/Time:  2009-03-09 00:00:00

Geographic Extent -
    Longitude (West): -4.03
    Longitude (East): -3.76
    Latitude (South): 50.72
    Latitude (North): 50.89

Data Quality Statement:
Rothamsted Research is committed to complying with the standards of the RCUK Policy and Guidelines on Governance of Good Research Conduct, Joint Code of Practice for Research (JCoPR), BBSRC Statement on Safeguarding Good Science Practice, BBSRC data sharing policy and the environmental standard, ISO 14001. Rothamsted Research provides a quality-oriented environment: - Senior management approval of science projects before submission to sponsors. - Scrutiny to ratify the statistical design, management and output for all field, glasshouse and CE experiments. - Institute wide information tools, such as databases of standard operating procedures, risk assessments, COSHH forms, scientific samples, chemical stocks, staff CVs, training and laboratory notebooks. - Laboratory notebook procedures to ensure all operations are recorded, signed and dated, primary data are linked to secondary data, sample location is easily identified and in-house training is recorded. - Electronic data are maintained and backed up on networked servers. Every week a full copy is cycled to a separate physical location. - Environmental targets and objectives are set and environmental performance is monitored in accordance with ISO 14001. - A well-defined training programme for postgraduate students. - Experienced, professional staff provide scientists with support services including experimentation under field, glass and controlled environmental conditions. - High quality academic support services (Computing, Library, Statistics, BioImaging, Analytical Labs, Contracts, Finance and Quality Assurance) - Regular calibration and maintenance of equipment. - Senior management approval of all publications prior to submission and a policy that emphasises submission to peer-reviewed journals. - Facilities are available for Rothamsted to conduct work to support pesticide and semiochemical product approval or authorisation under its ORETO licence number 338, expiry 26 March 2018. Work is conducted to the requirements of this licence if specifically requested by sponsors. Note, Rothamsted Research does not follow GLP and is not accredited as a test facility under the Good Laboratory Practice Regulations, 1999. Project Leaders are responsible for science project work, including that of sub-contractors. Project planning involves risk management of the project. Staff and students on appointment are selected on the basis of how their skills meet the requirements of the project. Training is provided at induction and thereafter identified through annual staff appraisal. Responsibilities of staff involved in the project are formally set out in their written job description and forward job plan. Monitoring and improvement of scientific and environmental standards is achieved through the operation of internal and external procedures: - Monitoring of science output by senior management. - Reviewing progress of projects. - Evaluating reports from internal audits of science projects against the JCoPR, from all Rothamsted activities against the requirements of ISO 14001 and from all external audits. Detailed nitrous oxide emission measurement methodology: Direct N2O emissions were measured with three static flux chambers (40 cm wide x 40 cm long x 25 cm high) per plot, covering a total surface area of 0.48 m2. The chambers were of white (i.e. reflective) PVC and un-vented with a water-filled channel running around the upper rim of the chamber allowing an air-tight seal to form following chamber enclosure with a lid (Smith et al., 2012). Chambers were pushed into the soil up to a depth of 5 cm and remained in place throughout the experiment, except during fertiliser application, drilling and harvesting when chambers were removed, locations were marked, and chambers were re-instated to the same position as prior to removal. Chambers remained open except for a short time on each sampling day. On that day, ten samples of ambient air were taken to represent time zero (T0) N2O samples. From each chamber, after a 40-minute enclosure period (T40) one headspace sample was taken using a 50-ml syringe and flushed though a pre-evacuated 20-22 ml glass vial fitted with a chloro-butyl rubber septum and held at atmospheric pressure. The N2O flux was calculated using an assumed linear increase in N2O concentration from the ambient N2O concentration (T0) to the N2O concentration inside the chamber after 40-minutes enclosure (T40) (Chadwick et al., 2014). Throughout each experiment, the linearity of emissions through time was checked routinely from two chambers located on the highest N rate plots. A minimum of five samples were taken from each chamber at 15 min intervals commencing at closure i.e. T0 and spanning the T40 sampling time. In order to permit sampling from a growing crop, at the time of sampling an additional chamber was stacked (using the water-filled channel) onto each permanent chamber and the chamber enclosure period extended. In order to minimise the effect of diurnal variation, gas sampling was carried out between 10:00 am and 14:00 pm and where possible between 10:00 am and 12:00 pm as suggested by IAEA (1992) and referred to in the IPCC good practice guidance (IPCC, 2000). Gas samples were analysed as soon as possible after collection (to minimise potential leakage) using gas chromatographs fitted with an electron-capture detector and an automated sample injection system. Following receipt in the laboratory, two replicates of one standard N2O gas were kept with the samples and were used to verify sample integrity during storage. The gas chromatographs were calibrated on a daily basis using certified N2O standard gas mixtures. Following fertiliser application, N2O flux measurements were carried out on the three consecutive days after the onset of fertiliser prill degradation and thereafter following a daily rainfall exceeding 10 mm or every 10-14 days (14-21 days November to March) giving a total of c.50 sampling days over the 12-month sampling period. Prior to the first fertiliser application N2O measurements were taken to provide baseline information. Measurements were taken over 12 months to follow IPCC good practice guidance and so that the results were directly comparable to the IPCC 2006 methodology default emission factor. Nitrous oxide fluxes from the three replicate chambers per plot were averaged. Cumulative fluxes were calculated using the trapezoidal rule to interpolate fluxes between sampling points. References: Chadwick, D.R., Cardenas, L., Misselbrook, T.H., Smith, K.A., Rees, R.M., Watson, C.J., Mcgeough, K.L., Williams, J.R., Cloy, J.M., Thorman, R.E. and Dhanoa, M.S. (2014). Optimizing chamber methods for measuring nitrous oxide emissions from plot-based agricultural experiments. European Journal of Soil Science 65, 295-307. IAEA (1992). Manual on Measurement of Methane And Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Agriculture. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, IAEA-TECDOC-674, ISSN 10111-4289. (IPCC, 2000). Good Practice Guidance And Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Penman, J., Kruger, D., Galbally, I., Hiraishi, T., Nyenzi, B., Emmanul, S., Buendia, L., Hoppaus, R., Martinsen, T., Meijer, J., Miwa, K. znd Tanabe, K. (Eds). IGES, Japan. Smith, K.A., Dobbie, K.E., 2001. The impact of sampling frequency and sampling times on chamber-based measurements of N2O emissions from fertilized soils. Global Change Biol. 7, 933–945 Smith K.A., Dobbie K.E., Thorman R., Watson C.J., Chadwick D.R., Yamulki S. and Ball B.C. (2012). The effect of N fertilizer forms on nitrous oxide emissions from UK arable land and grassland. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 93, 127-149.
Publication Date: 
2016-11-02


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Rights Statement

This data is published under the licence Open Government Licence (Version 3)

Attribution: L.M. Cardenas and N. Donovan

Citation of this data should be as follows:
L.M. Cardenas and N. Donovan (2016): Experimental determination of nitrous oxide emission factors for arable land. Experimental site in Devon, 2008. Version:1. [dataset] Freshwater Biological Association [publisher]. doi:10.17865/ghgno111

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