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Title: 
Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Inventory Research Platform - InveN2Ory. Dung and urine experimental site in Dumfries, 2012

Related Party - Organisation (Author): SRUC
Related Party - Organisation (Funder): Defra
Related Party - Organisation (Funder): Scottish Government
Related Party - Organisation (Funder): Welsh Assembly Government
Related Party - Organisation (Funder): DAERA Northern Ireland
Abstract:
An experiment was carried out at the SRUC Crichton research farm near Dumfries, south-west Scotland (sandy loam topsoil texture) using small field plots (3 x 6 m) arranged in a randomised block design with three replicates per treatment. Cattle urine (at 5 L/m2), synthetic urine (at 5 L/m2 in summer & autumn and c.1.7 L/m2 in spring) and cattle dung (at 20 kg/m2) was applied to permanent grassland in early-April (spring), late-June (summer) and in early-October (autumn) 2012. The synthetic urine was prepared using the formulation described for “R2” in the paper by Kool et al., (2006). A control treatment was included where no urine or dung was applied. In a separate treatment, a commercially available nitrification inhibitor was tested; dicyandiamide (DCD) was pre-mixed with the urine prior to application to give an application rate of 10 kg /ha for the DCD. The urine and dung was collected from dairy cows at the SRUC Crichton Dairy Research Center, kept refrigerated at <4°C and applied within seven days of collection. Following urine application to five 0.36 m2 areas of the plot (‘urine patches’), measurements of direct N2O-N were made over c.12 months, using 5 static chambers (1 per 0.36 m2 area, giving a total chamber surface area of 0.63 m2) and analysed by gas chromatography. Similarly, dung was applied in five circular patches (0.126 m2) so that each patch was completely enclosed by a nitrous oxide static chamber. For soil mineral N and grass N uptake measurements, two additional areas of 2 m x 2 m were treated on each plot; one with 20 litres of urine and one with 80 kg of dung. Grass yields and N offtakes were measured following grass cuts in mid-May, mid-June, early-August, early-October 2012 and early-April 2013 from the spring dung and urine application, early-August, early-October 2012 and early-June 2013 from the summer dung and urine application, and mid-May, late-June and mid October 2013 from the Autumn dung and urine application. The Dumfries, 2012 dung and urine experiment contains data sets of; annual nitrous oxide emissions, annual nitrous oxide emission factors, soil moisture, top soil mineral nitrogen (selected dates), temperature, rainfall and associated crop (grass yield and nitrogen offtakes) and soil measurements. Reference: Kool, D.M., Hoffland, E., Abrahamse, P.A & van Groenigen, J.W. (2006). What artificial urine composition is adequate for simulating soil N2O fluxes and mineral N dynamics Soil Biology and Biochemistry 38, 1757-1763.

Subject Keywords: Nitrous oxideUrineSynthetic urineDungNitrification inhibitorsDCDApplication timingGrassland soilsSandy soils
Geographic Keywords: Dumfries and GallowaySouth West ScotlandScotlandUnited Kingdom
Phenomenon Time -  Start Date/Time: 2012-04-03 00:00:00 End Date/Time:  2013-09-25 00:00:00

Geographic Extent -
    Longitude (West): -3.49
    Longitude (East): -3.21
    Latitude (South): 54.97
    Latitude (North): 55.11

Data Quality Statement:
SAC CONSULTING & SRUC RESEARCH QUALITY POLICY We aim to: - Ensure that all Consulting & Research contracts and services are fulfilled in a professional manner and that the requirements and expectations of our clients are met. - Be effective in translating the outcomes of our work into practice and cascading this on to appropriate industry partners. - Achieve a work environment that is professional, creative and enjoyable to work in and is in accordance with the organisations RISE values. - Ensure that management communicate the requirements of the Quality Management Systems and their roles and responsibilities in terms of its implementation and maintenance, while also ensuring that sufficient resources are in place to effectively maintain the Quality Management System. This incorporates: 1. Efficient processes for carrying out the highest quality Consulting & Research work, to inspire stakeholders and to meet individual clients’ needs. 2. Having defined roles and responsibilities across SAC Consulting & SRUC Research, to assist staff in their every day work 3. Senior managers maintain a commitment to attract and develop high quality, dedicated staff through on going investment in our resources and training, while also maintaining a working environment that lends itself to high quality Consulting and Research work. 4. Completion of projects to expectation through systems of quality control that ensure safe, effective and economic use of resources and the ongoing review of completed work, to enable us to improve our processes and services available to clients. We are committed to ensuring that our Quality Management System continues to comply with the requirements of ISO 9001:2015 with the regular review of our quality objectives and the continuous improvement of our systems, which will be led and directed by senior managers within SAC Consulting and SRUC Research. We shall achieve this by developing in all staff a culture that ensures individual commitment to meeting client requirements and the achievement of identified objectives that ensure that the overall aims and objectives of the organisation continue to be met. Quality is everyone’s responsibility Signed: Date: 11th April 2016 Dr Mike Smith Head of Contracts Office Detailed nitrous oxide emission measurement methodology: Direct N2O emissions were measured with five static flux chambers (400 mm diameter, 300 mm height and soil surface area coverage of approximately 0.126 m²) per plot. The chambers were circular chambers made of opaque polypropylene and sealed using aluminium lids and clips to form an air tight seal. Chambers were pushed into the soil up to a depth of 5 cm and remained in place throughout the experiment. Chambers remained in place during grass cutting, when the grass was cut to a height of 4 cm and clippings removed from inside the chamber. Chambers remained open except for a short time on each sampling day. On that day, ten samples of ambient air were taken to represent time zero (T0) N2O samples. From each chamber, after a 40-minute enclosure period (T40) a headspace sample was taken using a 50-ml syringe. This was transferred using a 3-way tap into a pre-evacuated 20 ml glass vial fitted with a chloro-butyl rubber septum, over-filled to maintain positive pressure. The N2O flux was calculated using an assumed linear increase in N2O concentration from the ambient N2O concentration (T0) to the N2O concentration inside the chamber after 40-minutes enclosure (T40) (Chadwick et al., 2014). Throughout each experiment, the linearity of emissions through time was checked routinely from three chambers located on the urine only treatment. A minimum of five samples were taken from each chamber at 10 min intervals commencing at closure i.e. T0 and spanning the T40 sampling time. Grass within the chamber was cut to a height of 4 cm when the grass reached the height of the chamber lid to enable lid closure and gas sampling to continue. In order to minimise the effect of diurnal variation, gas sampling was carried out between 10:00 am and 2:00 pm and where possible between 10:00 am and 12:00 pm as suggested by IAEA (1992) and referred to in the IPCC good practice guidance (IPCC, 2000). Gas samples were analysed as soon as possible after collection (to minimise potential leakage) using gas chromatographs fitted with an electron-capture detector and an automated sample injection system. The gas chromatographs were calibrated on a daily basis using certified N2O standard gas mixtures. An exchange of samples of chamber air and standard gas mixtures between labs from the different research organisations involved in the InveN2Ory programme of experiments who operated the GCs were carried out, to avoid the possibility of any bias in the results towards high or low values. Following urine/dung application, N2O flux measurements were carried out for 5 days immediately following urine/dung application, daily for a further 5 days during the next week, twice weekly for the next two weeks, every other week over the next c.four months, decreasing in frequency to monthly until the end of the 12 month sampling period. Prior to the urine/dung application N2O measurements were taken to provide baseline information. This sampling schedule resulted in an annual total of c.30 sampling days starting from the day of each of the urine/dung application. Measurements were taken over 12 months to follow IPCC good practice guidance and so that the results were directly comparable to the IPCC 2006 methodology default emission factor. Nitrous oxide fluxes from the five replicate chambers per plot were averaged. Cumulative fluxes were calculated using the trapezoidal rule to interpolate fluxes between sampling points. References: Chadwick, D.R., Cardenas, L., Misselbrook, T.H., Smith, K.A., Rees, R.M., Watson, C.J., Mcgeough, K.L., Williams, J.R., Cloy, J.M., Thorman, R.E. & Dhanoa, M.S. (2014). Optimizing chamber methods for measuring nitrous oxide emissions from plot-based agricultural experiments. European Journal of Soil Science 65, 295-307. IAEA (1992). Manual on Measurement of Methane & Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Agriculture. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, IAEA-TECDOC-674, ISSN 10111-4289. (IPCC, 2000). Good Practice Guidance & Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Penman, J., Kruger, D., Galbally, I., Hiraishi, T., Nyenzi, B., Emmanul, S., Buendia, L., Hoppaus, R., Martinsen, T., Meijer, J., Miwa, K. znd Tanabe, K. (Eds). IGES, Japan. Smith K.A., Dobbie K.E., Thorman R., Watson C.J., Chadwick D.R., Yamulki S. & Ball B.C. (2012). The effect of N fertilizer forms on nitrous oxide emissions from UK arable land and grassland. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 93, 127-149.
Publication Date: 
2017-04-05


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Citation of this data should be as follows:
M.J. Bell, R.M. Rees, J.M. Cloy, C.F.E. Topp, A. Bagnall and D.R. Chadwick (2017): Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Inventory Research Platform - InveN2Ory. Dung and urine experimental site in Dumfries, 2012. Version:1. [dataset] Freshwater Biological Association [publisher]. doi:10.17865/ghgno578

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