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Title: 
Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Inventory Research Platform - InveN2Ory. Manure experimental site in Midlothian, 2012-13

Related Party - Organisation (Author): SRUC
Related Party - Organisation (Funder): Defra
Related Party - Organisation (Funder): Scottish Government
Related Party - Organisation (Funder): Welsh Assembly Government
Related Party - Organisation (Funder): DAERA Northern Ireland
Abstract:
On a SRUC research farm near Penicuik, eastern Scotland (sandy loam topsoil texture), direct N2O-N emissions were measured from replicated (x3) plots (6 x 12 m) arranged in a randomised block design. Cattle slurry (c.40 m3/ha), broiler litter (5.7 t/ha in autumn, 8 t/ha in spring) and layer manure (14.5 t/ha in autumn and 16.4 t/ha in spring) were applied to cereal stubble in the autumn (early-October) and to winter wheat in the spring (early-April). Cattle FYM (c.30 t/ha) was also applied in the autumn. The cattle slurry was applied using watering cans simulating trailing hose and surface broadcast application and the solid manures were spread by hand. In the autumn the surface broadcast cattle slurry and the poultry manures were incorporated within 24 hours of application. An untreated control treatment was included where no manure was applied. Following manure application, measurements of direct N2O-N were made over c.12 months, using 5 static chambers (0.8 m2 total surface area) per plot and analysed by gas chromatography. In a separate area of the plot, a wind tunnel technique was used (one per plot) to measure ammonia-N emissions for 7 days after each cattle manure application and for 21 days after each poultry manure application. Grain yields and total N offtakes were measured following harvest in early-September 2013. The Midlothian, 2012-13 manure experiment contains data sets of; annual nitrous oxide emission, annual nitrous oxide emission factor, total ammonia loss, soil moisture, top soil mineral nitrogen (selected dates), temperature, rainfall and associated crop (yield, total and grain nitrogen offtakes) and soil measurements.

Subject Keywords: Nitrous oxideAmmoniaManureCattle slurryBroiler litterLayer manureApplication methodsBandspreadingTrailing shoeSurface broadcastApplication timingArable landCereal stubbleWinter wheatCattle farmyard manure
Geographic Keywords: MidlothianEastern ScotlandScotlandUnited Kingdom
Phenomenon Time -  Start Date/Time: 2012-10-03 00:00:00 End Date/Time:  2014-04-10 00:00:00

Geographic Extent -
    Longitude (West): -3.34
    Longitude (East): -3.06
    Latitude (South): 55.79
    Latitude (North): 55.94

Data Quality Statement:
SAC CONSULTING & SRUC RESEARCH QUALITY POLICY We aim to: - Ensure that all Consulting & Research contracts and services are fulfilled in a professional manner and that the requirements and expectations of our clients are met. - Be effective in translating the outcomes of our work into practice and cascading this on to appropriate industry partners. - Achieve a work environment that is professional, creative and enjoyable to work in and is in accordance with the organisations RISE values. - Ensure that management communicate the requirements of the Quality Management Systems and their roles and responsibilities in terms of its implementation and maintenance, while also ensuring that sufficient resources are in place to effectively maintain the Quality Management System. This incorporates: 1. Efficient processes for carrying out the highest quality Consulting & Research work, to inspire stakeholders and to meet individual clients’ needs. 2. Having defined roles and responsibilities across SAC Consulting & SRUC Research, to assist staff in their every day work 3. Senior managers maintain a commitment to attract and develop high quality, dedicated staff through on going investment in our resources and training, while also maintaining a working environment that lends itself to high quality Consulting and Research work. 4. Completion of projects to expectation through systems of quality control that ensure safe, effective and economic use of resources and the ongoing review of completed work, to enable us to improve our processes and services available to clients. We are committed to ensuring that our Quality Management System continues to comply with the requirements of ISO 9001:2015 with the regular review of our quality objectives and the continuous improvement of our systems, which will be led and directed by senior managers within SAC Consulting and SRUC Research. We shall achieve this by developing in all staff a culture that ensures individual commitment to meeting client requirements and the achievement of identified objectives that ensure that the overall aims and objectives of the organisation continue to be met. Quality is everyone’s responsibility Signed: Date: 11th April 2016 Dr Mike Smith Head of Contracts Office Detailed nitrous oxide emission measurement methodology: Direct N2O emissions were measured with five static flux chambers (40 cm wide x 40 cm long x 40 cm high) per plot, covering a total surface area of 0.8 m2. The chambers were of white (i.e. reflective) PVC and un-vented with a water-filled channel running around the upper rim of the chamber allowing an air-tight seal to form following chamber enclosure with a lid (Smith et al., 2012). Chambers were pushed into the soil up to a depth of 5 cm and remained in place throughout the experiment, except during manure application when chambers were removed, locations were marked, and chambers were re-instated to the same position as prior to removal. Chambers remained open except for a short time on each sampling day. On that day, ten samples of ambient air were taken to represent time zero (T0) N2O samples. From each chamber, after a 40-minute enclosure period (T40) a headspace sample was taken using a 50-ml syringe. This was transferred using a 3-way tap into a pre-evacuated 20 ml glass vial fitted with a chloro-butyl rubber septum, over-filled to maintain positive pressure. The N2O flux was calculated using an assumed linear increase in N2O concentration from the ambient N2O concentration (T0) to the N2O concentration inside the chamber after 40-minutes enclosure (T40) (Chadwick et al., 2014). Throughout each experiment, the linearity of emissions through time was checked routinely from three chambers located on the plots where poultry litter had been applied. A minimum of five samples were taken from each chamber at 10 min intervals commencing at closure i.e. T0 and spanning the T40 sampling time. In order to permit sampling from a growing crop, when required an additional chamber was stacked onto each permanent chamber. In order to minimise the effect of diurnal variation, gas sampling was carried out between 10:00 am and 2:00 pm and where possible between 10:00 am and 12:00 pm as suggested by IAEA (1992) and referred to in the IPCC good practice guidance (IPCC, 2000). Gas samples were analysed as soon as possible after collection (to minimise potential leakage) using gas chromatographs fitted with an electron-capture detector and an automated sample injection system. The gas chromatographs were calibrated on a daily basis using certified N2O standard gas mixtures. An exchange of samples of chamber air and standard gas mixtures between labs from the different research organisations involved in the InveN2Ory programme of experiments who operated the GCs were carried out, to avoid the possibility of any bias in the results towards high or low values. Following manure application, N2O flux measurements were carried out for 5 days immediately following manure application, daily for a further 5 days during the next week, twice weekly for the next two weeks, every other week over the next c.four months, decreasing in frequency to monthly until the end of the 12 month sampling period. For each manure application timing, this sampling schedule resulted in an annual total of c.30 sampling days starting from the day of the application. Measurements were taken over 12 months to follow IPCC good practice guidance and so that the results were directly comparable to the IPCC 2006 methodology default emission factor. Nitrous oxide fluxes from the five replicate chambers per plot were averaged. Cumulative fluxes were calculated using the trapezoidal rule to interpolate fluxes between sampling points. References: Chadwick, D.R., Cardenas, L., Misselbrook, T.H., Smith, K.A., Rees, R.M., Watson, C.J., Mcgeough, K.L., Williams, J.R., Cloy, J.M., Thorman, R.E. & Dhanoa, M.S. (2014). Optimizing chamber methods for measuring nitrous oxide emissions from plot-based agricultural experiments. European Journal of Soil Science 65, 295-307. IAEA (1992). Manual on Measurement of Methane & Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Agriculture. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, IAEA-TECDOC-674, ISSN 10111-4289. (IPCC, 2000). Good Practice Guidance & Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Penman, J., Kruger, D., Galbally, I., Hiraishi, T., Nyenzi, B., Emmanul, S., Buendia, L., Hoppaus, R., Martinsen, T., Meijer, J., Miwa, K. znd Tanabe, K. (Eds). IGES, Japan. Smith K.A., Dobbie K.E., Thorman R., Watson C.J., Chadwick D.R., Yamulki S. & Ball B.C. (2012). The effect of N fertilizer forms on nitrous oxide emissions from UK arable land and grassland. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 93, 127-149.
Publication Date: 
2017-04-05


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Citation of this data should be as follows:
M.J. Bell, N.J. Hinton, J.M. Cloy, J.R. Williams, T.H. Misselbrook, R.M. Rees and D.R. Chadwick (2017): Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Inventory Research Platform - InveN2Ory. Manure experimental site in Midlothian, 2012-13. Version:1. [dataset] Freshwater Biological Association [publisher]. doi:10.17865/ghgno555

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